At The 1999
International Primal Association

- Photo Album 2 of 2 -

Dr Bill Smukler practices his art in Philadelphia. He has explored the use of "mass time" in deep feeling psychotherapy in the 40-day "Noah's Ark" continuous psychotherapy. He also conducts training for therapists in his particular methodology at the "Ark."

Bill, at age 84, will be leading the "Ark" in January, 2000. He has taken sandplay techniques to new levels by innovating a unique format of sandplay sharing with large groups.

William Smukler
1915 - 1999

Bill died on November 2, 1999, two months after this photograph was taken. In the Spring of 2000 there will be a large honoring of Bill, sponsored by his family and close friends.

Obituary by Dr. Joseph R. Sanders

From the left: Steve Austill, an ordained Episcopalian minister lives in Michigan. Francis "Taff" Welch led workshops at the conference in Sibling Relationships and Primal Grandparenting. He is a practicing attorney in New York. Dr. Fred Zielke, a psychotherapist since 1968, is a board member and past president of the IPA. At one time he was a music teacher and music therapist. Barbara Bryan has been Director of the Primal Integration Center of Michigan since 1974 and a past president of the IPA. Larry Schumer is a computer whiz and technical writer with a long time interest in the primal process.

Ted Riskin and David Pearson led an all day Holotropic Breathwork workshop at the IPA Convention. Both are Dr. Stanislav Grof certified HB practitioners and have their practice both in New York and New Jersey. Ted's website is at

H. Lawrence King, the IPA's present president, has a private practice in Manhattan. He began doing deep feeling work in the 1950s. At the convention Larry ran a workshop aimed at introducing Primal Therapy to beginners and one on transference issues. His popular article defining the primal process What Is Primal Psychotherapy? appears on this website, The Primal Psychotherapy Page.

Yvonne Parma with Francis "Taff" Welch.

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